Methods of Vaccination

There are seven methods of vaccination which are used and are mentioned over here in detail. The reconstitution of vaccine is of prime importance. Users must apply all the steps of the reconstitution while using the live freeze dried vaccines.

Intraocular (Eye Drop) or Nasal Instillation method

This method of administration by Eye drop/ Nasal instillation should be preferably used for small dose packs as it is necessary to consume reconstituted vaccine immediately. If this method is to be used for higher dose packs it is advisable to use more vaccinators so as to utilise reconstituted vaccine immediately. Hold the chick with one eye turned up. Take the vaccine product in sterile prescribed vaccine-dropper and instill one drop in eye or nostril. Ensure that the vaccine drop is completely absorbed in the nostril or in the eye. In Nasal Instillation method the vaccine drop is inhaled by the chick on momentary pressing of the beak. Intraocular method of vaccination gives better immune response. Use prescribed droppers as provided by Ventri.

Beak Dipping Method

Reconstituted vaccine should be mixed with requisite amount of chilled water (normally mixed with suitable amount of skimmed milk powder) in china-clay / glass bowl.

Secure the chicks and dip the beak upto the nostrils. Chicks quite often will respond with a jerky movement of the forehead. Complete the vaccination within one hour. maintain the cold chain throughout the vaccination.

Subcutaneous Injection Method

This method is specially used for inactivated vaccines and Marek’s disease vaccine, live Suncutaneous injection is often placed in the lower half, back of the neck. although field contamination due to unhygienic vaccine handling can result in extreme reactions at the site of injection, this region is not valuable part of carcass.

Intramuscular Injection Method

Intramuscular injection of inactivated vaccines and of live vaccine like ND R2B & Fowl Pox, can be placed in several locations including the breast, thigh and wing. These types of vaccines have been commonly injected into the breast muscle of chickens, because intramuscular injection into the breast is an easy and accurate way to apply the vaccine.

For subcutaneous and intramuscular vaccination method use 20G1/2 inch needle with a short bevel. Change needle after every batch of 100 birds for hygienic vaccination in order to reduce the post vaccinal reactions.

Wing Web Prick Method

This method is used only for Pigeon pox vaccine. an applicator instrument is called “lancet” is used for this method of vaccination. the metal tips of lancet are dipped into reconstituted vaccine and pierced through the part of wing having the least number of blood vessels.

Mass vaccination:

Drinking Water Vaccination

The Oral vaccination of the birds through drinking water is the most practical method of vaccination in flocks of large size. Drinking water vaccination can be used for vaccinating birds with certain vaccines against Newcastle Disease (N.D.), I.B.D. (Gumboro Disease) and Infectious Bronchitis (I.B.). Quality ice @ 1kg per 10 ltr of water and skim milk powder @ 6 g per ltr water (Vacc-sure tablet can be used.) Always place the requisite
number of waterers per batch of birds for having the better charging of vaccines to the flock.

Vaccination by Dosing Pump

A dosing pump is a device, which allows constant, progressive and predetermined release of “stock Solution” into the drinking water of birds. The rate of incorporation is adjustable and classically varies from 2 % to 5 % . (for example a rate of 2 % means: 2 ltr of “Stock solution” released per 100 ltr of drinking water passing through pump). An important factor in vaccination by dosing pump is estimation of the volume of the “Stock-solution” and timing of work. Here the validation is important, wherein counter-check the released volume.

Spray Vaccination

The reconstituted chilled vaccine in the bottle us poured aseptically in chilled skim milk powder – water mixture.

Use 2.5 grams of skim milk powder per ltr of distilled water. Clean mineral water which is of next choice if distilled water is not available. Use 300-500 ml of clean distilled water (skim milk powder – water misture) for every 1000 birds doses of the primary vaccine or 500- 1000 ml for repeat vaccinations. Various types of pumps for spraying of vaccine are available in foreign/developed countries for use in such vaccinations.

However requisite spray pump available in the market can be used for spraying of the reconstituted vaccine described above. The droplet size of vaccine water sprayed through such pumps should be in the range of 150 & 175 micron size. This is of – course to avoid stress on the air sacs and further leading ti precipitation of mycoplasma existing in dormant form. Hence consult with the experts.

Spraying of the vaccine is recommended at flow rate of about 300-400 ml per minute, keeping the distance of about 30 cm above the chicks. The birds can be vaccinated on day of arrival in the chick-boxes itself for desirable “take” of vaccination to avoid handling stress.

However, upto 6th day, priming is also possible using this method while keeping the chicks in their chick guards and raising the brooding “Baskets” with bulbs at more height for 15-30 minutes till “vaccination” is completed. Since brooding method is used in your farm is not suitable for the spray vaccination as described above then religiously use eye drop or nasal or drinking water method for vaccination.

Incase if CRD is noted in particular areas then the spray vaccination should be avoided as opined by technical experts.

The vaccinator must put the aprons, mask, gumboots and goggles to protect themselves from transmission of any virus particles into system.

Drinking water Method of Vaccination

It is very common method used by all the poultry farmers. Most if the booster or repeat vaccination are done by drinking water. The number of drinkers are very important and should be places to make it available to all the chicks / birds so that every bird can get access tot he vaccinated water on the day of vaccine. Many times the water vaccination is done through nipple drinkers or channel drinkers in such cases the requisite pipeline should be throughly cleaned by pipeline cleaners. This pipeline cleaning should be done regularly but it should always be done three days prior to drinking water vaccination, to avoid any kind of detrimental effects of cleansing agent on vaccine virus.

Age of Birds in Weeks 03 03 04 08 12 20 25 35 45 55
Broiler Breeders 15 18 26 30 40 45 50 50 50 55
Layer Commercial 10* 16* 24 25 30 35 35 35 35 35
Layer Breeders 10* 16* 24 25 30 35 35 35 35 35

Water quantity* during vaccination also depends on the holding capacity of pipeline. during 3rd and 4rth week period of Layer Breeder and Layer Commercial birds requisite quantity water should be matched for best water vaccination uptake. during intense summer season the above quantity of water can be increased 5 to 10% depending upon rise of the temperature to provide requisite water quantity during vaccincation.

During winter and rainy seasons withdrawal period for water can be extended even upto 2 hours. Where as in intense summer withdrawal period should be upto 45 minutes only. But always see that vaccination water is consumed within 2 hours, whereas in normal case water withdrawal period can upto 1 and half hours, so that birds become thirsty.

In nipple drinking water system the amount of water required during vaccination can easily be calculated based on the requirements of water required for two hours.

In severe winter the water consumption comes down and hence during vaccination the water quantity will be comparatively less.